Overpass node types

Posted on 21.02.2021 Comments

The Overpass API offers a variety of search possibilities. This is also known as querying. The results of those searches or queries can be displayed directly on a map, but it is also possible to retrieve only the data. On this page we will focus on examples that have to be displayed on a map. This means that all queries can be inserted in the code editor of Overpass turbo. From there the query can be executed and the result will be shown on a map. Simply click on the Icon next to each query to try it in overpass turbo!

The simplest way to get started with Overpass API is to use Taginfo and to navigate to the tag you are interested in.

Take post boxes as an example. Push the Overpass Turbo button there in the upper right. This will start the Overpass Turbo user interface and produce the following query.

The Overpass Turbo user interface has a lot of capabilities. For the moment it should suffice that you have in the upper left corner of the map view a textfield. Type in your favorite location. It will then, with the use of Nominatim move the map view to that location.

Type in e. Manhattan and choose the first hit. The map then jumps to the upper end of the Central Park in Manhattan. Zoom out two levels to see some of the built area. Run the query by hitting Run. Hence, a more concise variant of the query is. As we are about a simple example here, we reduce the query further in two steps to get it really simple. And we can remove most of the cryptic syntax that mostly tells what to do with ways and relations.

We can get the same result as before with only two lines. All these steps work with an tag from Taginfo. There is no magic involved. Now what about the extra syntax? Let us review them bit by bit.

To see an effect, we switch to query for restaurants instead of post boxes, because then you can see the effect in adding support for ways. Running this query will result in a message that geometry is missing.

overpass node types

This is because the OpenStreetMap data model does not directly associate coordinates to ways and relations. Ways and relations instead get their geometry by resolving their node references.Area creation is now based on the areas. For a natural language version of this script, please refer to this comprehensive list of polygon features. Areas can be used in queries according to the language guide and language reference. We explain here in more detail the computation process: The computation process is executed in an infinite loop on the Overpass API server, where each run lasts between 4 and 12 hours.

It used to execute the following script, which is nowadays replaced by a more sophisticated version see link above :. Note: this script is meant to be exclusively run on the server. Any other Overpass API user like overpass turbo can neither trigger the area creation nor directly influence the area creation rules.

If you think the area creation rules are incomplete, you should raise a Github issue. In the following foreach block, the area is actually created: the shape is built from the way members of the relation, the tags are copied from the relation itself, the pivot object. The second union block selects all ways that have a tag area with value yes and a tag name. Here, we create one area for each way. The tags are taken here from the respective way, as well as the shape.

From OpenStreetMap Wiki. Purge Help. Other languages Translate. Category : Overpass API. Navigation menu Personal tools English Create account Log in. Namespaces Page Discussion. Views Read View source View history. In other languages Add links. This page was last edited on 13 Januaryat There are three different output formats available from Overpass API, and each of these output formats is available in different levels of details for the included data.

While the level of detail is controlled with the parameters used for the respective out or print statement, we discuss here the available output formats:. Note that regardless of the chosen output type, the server may return an HTML document in case of a malformed input. The format generally follows the description in the wiki. It doesn't contain a bounds tag, and it may contain certain additional tags.

Anyway, in all cases well-formed XML is returned. A response an example from Overpass API has always the following header and footer:. That means that all edits that have been uploaded before this date are included. If the query involves area data processing, a second timestamp in the same format is included in the attribute areas :.

This date is the date of the latest edit that has been considered in the most recent batch run of the area generation. Please note also the note tag.

This always tells a copyright reminder and can be ignored when parsing the data for other purposes. By contrast, if you find an error tag, something seriously has gone wrong, most likely an internal server error. I suggest to handle this similar to a network outage and additionally to propagate the error message back to the user to make bug reports possible.

The XML data itself, i. If you request areas, you will get for each area an area tag with an attribute id. The tag contains as subtags all the tags that are set on the area or inherited by the area from the object it has been generated from.

For that reason, we will describe the syntax used by Overpass API in detail here. At the lowest level, it is well-formed JSON. In particular, the following characters are escaped:.It acts as a database over the web: the client sends a query to the API and gets back the data set that corresponds to the query. Unlike the main APIwhich is optimized for editing, Overpass API is optimized for data consumers that need a few elements within a glimpse or up to roughly 10 million elements in some minutes, both selected by search criteria like e.

It acts as a database backend for various services. Please see the full user's manual for a detailed introduction. It is highly recommended to get familiar with various features via overpass turboan interactive Web-based frontend.

For legacy applications, there's also a compatibility layer to allow a smooth transition from XAPI. You can use the public visible instances:.

See the semantics explained below. You can use the Overpass turbo frontend to create and display queries for the above-mentioned Overpass API instances. Overpass API also provides permanent links. Of course: please read the documentation first. There are several community sites providing help for Overpass API and overpass turbo related questions.

It is the recommended channel for introductory to expert level questions or more generally, if your question is interesting to a wider audience. Please note that old questions and answers on these sites often are outdated. Missing features may have been implemented in the meantime, and workarounds may have been streamlined. I estimate a reasonable expiration limit to be two years. You can install your own instance from the latest stable release or the git source code repository latest version.

It is licensed under the Affero GPL v3. The project is maintained by Roland Olbricht mail: roland.

overpass node types

Contributions like bug reports or pull requests to the source code are welcome. There is a mailing list for developers.

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Before we get to a detailed syntax explanation, we present the probably most common use case, the map queryto collect all data including metadata from a given bounding box these requests are compacted to the minimum; note that the icon links to run those requests also include parameters to set the center of the rendered map at specified coordinates and zoom level, and to run the request immediately on load :.

To run this query, you can feed it into this query formor you can use Overpass Turbo to see the results on a map. The order of values in the bounding box See more details about bbox below.

The osm-script is silently added if you don't specify it explicitly when using the XML syntax.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

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The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I'm using overpass api and would like to understand the difference between a Node and a Way. Below is an xml snippet for each. I would appreciate if anyone knew what the number values mean and how they relate to the real world.

Also what is the difference between a node with tags and one without. First of all, this question is not at all about Overpass API - that's the normal OpenStreetMap object model with nodes, ways and relations. The ref values as such don't have any meaning, they're database internal object ids. However, A way may reference a node via its id as an example. And of course, some nodes may have tags, if they represent a node-like object in real life could be an amenity or maybe a stop-sign.

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Output formats

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Related 1. Hot Network Questions. Question feed. Stack Overflow works best with JavaScript enabled.Overpass QL is a proceduralimperative programming language written with a C style syntax. This wiki page intends to be a complete reference to the structure of Overpass QL. Overpass QL source code is divided into statements, and every statement ends with a semicolon. Statements are executed sequentially by a processand each statement run changes the process's execution state. Overpass QL manipulates sets.

Statements write their results into sets, and sets are then read by subsequent statements as input. An Overpass QL set can contain any combination of — and any number of — OpenStreetMap nodeswaysrelationsand area elements.

A turbo introduction to Overpass - MInh Nguyễn

Once a new result is implicitly or explicitly assigned to an existing set, its previous contents will be replaced and are no longer available. Overpass QL sets always have global scope visibility. The statement above is thus equivalent to:.

Overpass API/Overpass QL

It is equivalent to:. For example, this query:. Set names may consist of letters, digits, and the underscore; however, they must not start with a digit.

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To read elements from a set, append. Standalone queries are themselves comprised of smaller Overpass QL language components, such as evaluators, filters, and operators. Overpass QL settings must be declared in the first uncommented statement of the Overpass QL source code.

Settings cannot be declared in multiple statements. Settings declarations are enclosed in brackets []. A colon : appears between the setting name and the value or values to be set. The settings statement must be terminated with a semicolon .This guide shows you examples for queries to make to an Overpass API server.

You are invited to adapt the queries to your particular need. You may also want to consult Overpass QL for a complete reference of that language. The following simple query can for instance generate a flow of data containing all the nodes in a given bounding box, and print it:. Or you could also extend the result to include the ways which are referencing using the selected nodes.

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In this case, you may also want to extend the result with all nodes referenced by these ways:. You can choose there to get the output in:. Examples of the QL syntax are provided below.

A statement always ends with a semicolon ";". Furthermore, a statement is either:. All Overpass QL for filters or recursion queries can only be used after specifying a main query type or.

overpass node types

Bounding box clauses like all other clauses for filters or recursion queries can only be used as filters after specifying a main query type or. In the Overpass QL syntax, they have a form like in this example:. Bounding box clauses always start with the lowest latitude southernmost followed by lowest longitude westernmostthen highest latitude northernmost then highest longitude easternmost.

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Note that this is different from the ordering in the XAPI syntax. The Overpass XML syntax is safeguarded by using more explicit named parameters but note that their name may still be misleading, as they still take negative values for all absolute coordinates in the southern or western hemispheres, and positive values for all absolute coordinates in the northern or eastern hemispheres :.

A bounding box spanning through the antimeridian which would otherwise swap the two longitudes is equivalent to an union of two subqueries for each side of the antimeridian.

For example the long band which complements the previous bounding box over the same span of latitudes is equivalent to this union of queries on two bounding boxes as this is a very large area covering too much data, this query will probably fail, unless the main queries include more selective filters such as tag filters :. Note that you must specify same the main query here at least "node", "way", "rel", "area" or a ".

Currently, the Overpass API offers no facility to make this transform automatically if you swap the longitudes; instead Overpass API returns an error if the first specified longitude is greater than the second longitude. And it is still not possible to create a single compound filter containing an union of bounding boxes or other polygonal shapes based on an ordered list of coordinates pair, or other disc shapes based on a the cordinates of a central node and a maximum radius, or exclusions based on a substraction of two simple or compound shapes.

As well, the Overpass API offers no way to geometrically transform such simple or compound shapes using positive or negative buffers, in order to use more complex bounding filters: queries have to be repeated using different pretransformed simple shapes.

overpass node types

For more details, see the sections below related to the supported unions of queries, and to around The "area" objects are not directly OSM objects, they are generated and cached on the Overpass API server by a batch running periodically on this server to process all new or modified data changes in the database, and look for non-node objects describing an enclosed surface; these objects include closed ways, or relations notably "boundary" and "multipolygon" relations whose members include one or more ways joined together to create closed "inner" or "outer" rings delimiting a surface.

Overpass processes these objects in order to extract their geometry and reconnect and order them appropriately in the case of relations as a set of polygonal boundaries. The Overpass API server then stores the computed geometry, and associates them by id with the OSM way or relation object listing their tags; the batch also recognizes some naming tags that will be useful to identify them more easily.

Overpass "areas" are useful to avoid using explicit recursion queries and also as precomputed filters that won't return relations and ways that in fact don't enclose any area.

But as they are generated by periodic batches, they may not reflect the most recent state of the OSM database or even all the most recent diffs that are already received and stored in the Overpass API server. But they can greatly simplify and speedup the queries, notably for large surfaces with complex geometries, usually using "boundary" or "multipolygon" relations such as boundaries of countries or their regional subdivisions, or the complex boundaries of large "landuse" or "natural" areas.

These areas can then be used as more selective bounding filters instead of using simple bounding boxesor can also be used themselves as queries in which case they will return all nodes in the surface enclosed by the area geometry.

If areas are referenced by their internal id in Overpass and that area has been included, any areas present in input set is ignored and only OSM objects in the input set that are intersecting with that specified area will be kept as is:. The ids for precomputed Overpass areas are currently assigned by adding simply large static constants to the OSM id provided that the associated OSM objects effectively enclose a surface.

However areas are usually selected by running a separate special query supported by the Overpass Turbo client on their known naming tags for the OSM object they represent Nominatim is used to process, recognize and index several naming tags, including tags for translated names and storing the found areas into a named result set: any matching area with relevant tags will be stored in that named result set:.

Note that the "geocodeArea" queries above will return into the result set "a" only Overpass areas matching the indicated name, but no OSM objects nodes, ways or relations. Not all possible areas are returned by such queries, only the first matching one is returned: this is using an Overpass Turbo syntax extensionwhich allows performing a search by name using Nominatim and then convert the returned object into a suitable Overpass area id.